Buda Castle / Castle Hill (Budai Vár / Várhegy)
Part of the 1st district of Budapest. Since 1987, the Buda Castle has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Many medieval and 17-18th century houses and public buildings are located here. It has three main parts: the Royal Palace, St. George’s Square and the historic residential district. Massive walls surround the Castle entirely, the construction of which started in 1243. The building process accelerated in 1246 due to the new expected Mongolian attack. In a charter of King Béla IV in 1255, it is already mentioned as a completed castle. In 1354, King Louis I (the Great) transferred his court from Visegrád to Buda. The castle and the development of the city continued until Turkish times. The medieval palace, the Throne Room, the Royal Suite, the observatory and the construction of the library were finished during the reign of King Matthias. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526 Sultan Suleiman I marched into Buda Castle. The palace was destroyed due to the explosion of gunpowder in 1578 and the 1686. It was then recaptured from the Turks by the allied armies in 1686. Looting and fire devastated the castle and its population was massacred. After the recapture of the walls, restoration started immediately. German people were resettled here. The castle had endured two major sieges: one in 1849 and the other during the Second World War. A significant part of the buildings was rebuilt or restored in the 1960s close to their original state, and a small part was demolished or rebuilt with a new, simpler facade.
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